I had this same problem with razor burn, and my skin would feel very raw for at least a day. If I slapped on regular alcohol-based aftershave lotion, I felt like my face was on fire. I finally found a way to get rid of razor burn, though.
I went with my wife to her favorite cosmetics store and discovered they had a section dedicated to men's products. I found a shaving kit for sensitive skin that contained everything from a pre-shave conditioner to a razor burn treatment. The pre-shave conditioner stiffened up my facial hair so the razor would be more efficient per stroke. The razor itself had special lubricating strips, and the shaving gel didn't turn to foam.
What I liked best was the "shaving repair kit" that contained non-alcoholic lotions to soothe razor burn and shaving bumps.