I once used a glue that was labeled as heat-resistance to repair my backyard grill, but it did not hold up in high temperatures. I used epoxy glue the next time I needed a heat-resistant glue, and it worked perfectly. I think that epoxy will hold up in most situations, regardless of what the glued object is going to be exposed to.
The bottom line is that you should not assume that a glue is going to work for your needs just because the packaging makes certain claims. Experience and the recommendations of someone who has used a particular kind of glue is much better to rely on when choosing a glue for your needs.
Depending on what you are gluing, you can also check with the manufacturer of the product for specific glue recommendations. Sometimes this is the best place to start so you don't have to spend money on several types of glues before you find one that will work on your repair project.