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Choosing the best cello strings requires thinking about the different tonal qualities of gut core, steel core and synthetic core strings, as well as considering other factors such as the gauge of the string. The main issue with choosing cello strings is that the ones that provide the best sound are often different on different cellos, so trial and error may be necessary to make the best choice. Different manufacturers also combine different metals in the string’s winding, which can have a profound effect on the tone provided by the string.
Cellos are large, stringed instruments that are played with a bow. As a result of its size, it is usually played upright, with the body of the instrument situated on the ground. The player uses his or her weaker hand to fret notes on the instrument’s neck, and the stronger hand to either operate the bow or pluck the strings to create sound. Cellos aren’t as popular an instrument to learn as the violin, so cellists are often in short supply in orchestras.
Most instrument strings are made up of a core material with a winding wrapped around it. The type of core used on the strings can have a big effect on the tone of the cello strings. The three most common types of string core are gut, steel and synthetic, which is usually a variety of nylon such as Perlon. Strings can also be differentiated by their gauge, which essentially means “thickness,” and are generally split into light, medium and heavy gauges.
Different cores affect the tone of the string in a noticeable way. Gut core strings provide the richest tone, with a great deal of complexity and warmth, but the strings often go out of tune and are very sensitive to environmental factors such as humidity. Steel core strings have a brighter tone, and stay in tune much more effectively than do gut strings, but have no tonal complexity. More warmth can be found in steel core cello strings that use a variety of different materials in the winding. Synthetic core strings are a tonal compromise between steel and gut core strings, combining warmth of tone with stability of pitch.
String gauges are basically methods of differentiating between different thicknesses of strings. Most strings will be medium gauge, and suitable for most players, but thicker and thinner strings can offer some benefits. Thicker strings have to be strung tighter to achieve the same pitch and therefore provide greater projection of sound. Thinner cello strings are easier to press down on the finger-board, but lose volume as a result of their size.