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While mushrooms available for purchase in your local grocery should be safe to consume without question, poisonous and edible mushrooms can be difficult to tell apart in the wild. References such as field guides should always be used when gathering wild mushrooms. Brown mushrooms, Amanitas and false morels are all deadly. Other kinds of mushrooms can cause digestive problems or hallucinations. Checking against a reliable field guide can help reduce encounters with deadly mushrooms, but spore printing and chemical tests can more accurately ensure a mushroom's safety.
Of the many different types of mushrooms, three cause nearly all the deaths related to poisonous mushrooms. Many poisonous and edible mushrooms look very similar, so it is important to learn the differences between them. Experts recommend that even experienced gatherers use reference guides when gathering mushrooms. Mistakes can happen easily and even experienced gatherers have been poisoned by mushrooms.
Brown mushrooms are very common. These mushrooms also are called galerina and some refer to them as deadly galerina. Fallen trees, stumps and dead wood provide the perfect home for clusters of these mushrooms. As a common mushroom, these are picked often, though all small, brown mushrooms should be avoided, because accurate identification is difficult.
Approximately 90 percent of the poisonings that occur with mushrooms happen because of the Amanita. Even experts who are adept at telling poisonous and edible mushrooms apart often cannot tell the difference between an Amanita and a safe mushroom. The Amanita has a bulbous base that is unique to this kind of mushroom but may not always grow above ground, so careful digging may be required. The "death cap" is one type of Amanita, and so is "the destroying angel" which looks very similar to the safe, "meadow mushrooms" that are sold in stores. Most deaths are caused by "the destroying angel" because of the close resemblance.
One of the most popular mushrooms in the world is the morel. These mushrooms have wrinkled caps, thick stems and a flavor that is considered one of the best. False morels, which are poisonous, look similar. The differences between the poisonous and edible mushrooms are that false morels have caps that are not attached to the stem. Care should always be taken when gathering morels because, while both kinds have preferred season, both kinds also can grow any time during the year.
Poisonous and edible mushrooms are easy to mix up. Many kinds of mushrooms are poisonous enough to cause stomach problems or hallucinations but are not deadly. Gatherers should not taste a mushroom to see if it is poisonous, because some kinds of poisonous mushrooms do not taste bad, even though they're deadly. Spore printing, in which the moist mushroom cap is pressed against white paper to see the spore impression — specifically, its color — should be done to identify safe mushrooms. Chemical tests also should be done to ensure a mushroom is safe.
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