Reproductive rates are not sustaining national populations in 83 countries, according to United Nations demographics studies. This is because the average woman in those countries has fewer than about 2.0 children, which means that a group of 100 women in those countries is likely to give birth to fewer than 100 girls, resulting in a population decline from one generation to the next. If fertility rates remain the same, then the populations of Japan, Germany, Russia, Italy and Spain will all completely decline by the end of the next millennium. The population of Bosnia and Herzegovina is projected to be the first to reach zero, around the year 2600, followed by Macau and Malta.
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